Concordance Reliability among observers Interrater agreement; Score Reliability If advisors tend to accept, the differences between evaluators` observations will be close to zero. If one advisor is generally higher or lower than the other by a consistent amount, the distortion differs from zero. If advisors tend to disagree, but without a consistent model of one assessment above each other, the average will be close to zero. Confidence limits (generally 95%) It is possible to calculate for bias and for each of the limits of the agreement. A number of questions are asked to measure financial aversion to risk in a group of interviewees. Questions are randomly divided into two groups and respondents are randomly divided into two groups. Both groups take both tests: Group A first takes test A and group B first takes test B. The results of the two tests are compared and the results are almost identical, indicating the high reliability of the parallel forms. The reliability of the tests can be used to assess how a method resists these factors over time. The smaller the difference between the two results, the higher the test reliability. They develop a questionnaire to measure the IQ of a group of participants (a property that is unlikely to change significantly over time). You manage the test two months apart with the same group of people, but the results are very different, so the test-test reliability of the IQ questionnaire is low. There are several operational definitions of “inter-rated reliability” that reflect different views on what a reliable agreement between advisors is.
 There are three operational definitions of the agreement: another approach to the agreement (useful when there are only two advisors and the scale is continuous) is to calculate the differences between the observations of the two advisors. The average of these differences is called Bias and the reference interval (average ± 1.96 × standard deviation) is called the compliance limit. The limitations of the agreement provide an overview of how random variations can influence evaluations. There are several formulas that can be used to calculate compliance limits. The simple formula given in the previous paragraph, which is well suited to sampling sizes greater than 60, is the reliability of interreservators (also known as Interobserver reliability), measures the degree of agreement between different people observing or evaluating the same thing. They use it when data is collected by researchers who assign assessments, scores or categories to one or more variables. Therefore, the common probability of an agreement will remain high, even in the absence of an “intrinsic” agreement between the councillors. A useful interrater reliability coefficient (a) is expected to be close to 0 if there is no “intrinsic” agreement and (b) increased if the “intrinsic” agreement rate improves. Most probability-adjusted match coefficients achieve the first objective. However, the second objective is not achieved by many well-known measures that correct the odds.  To measure the reliability of the test, perform the same test on the same group of people at two different times. Then calculate the correlation between the two outcome rates.
Split-Half-Reliability: You divide a random set of measurements into two sentences. After testing the entire game for respondents, calculate the correlation between the two sets of responses. By comparing two methods of measurement, it is interesting not only to estimate both the bias and the limits of the agreement between the two methods (interdeccis agreement), but also to evaluate these characteristics for each method itself. It is quite possible that the agreement between two methods is bad simply because one method has broad convergence limits, while the other is narrow. In this case, the method with narrow limits of compliance would be statistically superior, while practical or other considerations could alter that assessment.